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Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI)


Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) is a premium form of DRI that has been compacted at a temperature greater than 650° C at time of compaction and has a density greater than 5,000 kilograms per cubic metre (5,000 kg/m3).

HBI was developed as a product in order to overcome the problems associated with shipping and handling of DRI - due to the process of compaction it is very much less porous and therefore very much less reactive than DRI and does not suffer from the risk of self-heating associated with DRI.

The principle market for HBI is electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, but HBI also finds application as a trim coolant in basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking and as blast furnace feedstock.

See more information about the HBI production process.

Benefits in steelmaking and hot metal production

To read more about HBI and the benefits that it confers to these markets, please see our Fact Sheets:

Composition and characteristics

General characteristics for HBI (% by weight)

(based on 65.5 - 68.0% Fe Iron Ore)

Metallization 94.0%
Fe (Total) 88.3 - 94.0%
Fe (Metallic) 83.0 - 88.4%
C 0.5 - 1.6

0.001 - 0.03%

P2O5 0.005 - 0.09%
Gangue* 3.9 - 8.6%
Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mo, Sn, Pb, Zn Traces
Size (typical) (90 - 140) x (48 - 58) x (32 - 34) mm
Fines & chips ≤ 5.0%
Apparent Density > 5.0 t/m3
Bulk Density 2.5 - 3.3 t/m3

* residual unreduced oxides, mainly SiO2 and Al2O3,, but also CaO, MgO, MnO, etc.

Shipping and handling

HBI - Direct Reduced Iron (A) - is classified as Group B (cargo with chemical hazard) and class MHB (material hazardous only in bulk) under the International Maritime Organisation's International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code, but, unlike DRI which requires shipment under an inert atmosphere, HBI requires only surface ventilation during shipment.

Further information can be found in IIMA's Logistics Guide HBI: Guide for Shipping, Handling and Storage.


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